Segment

Integrate in-app subscription events from RevenueCat with Segment

πŸ‘

The Segment integration is available to all users signed up after September '23, the legacy Grow and Pro plans, and Enterprise plans. If you're on a legacy Free or Starter plan and want to access this integration, migrate to our new pricing via your billing settings.

Segment can be a useful integration tool for seeing all events and revenue that occur for your app even if it’s not active for a period of time. You can use Segment to collect data on customer events to create a single view customer portfolio using an API.

With our Segment integration, you can:

  • Create an onboarding flow for users who have subscribed but have not yet engaged with the tutorial or first steps of your product.
  • Send personalized messages to users who have free trials that are about to expire.

With accurate and up-to-date subscription data in Segment, you'll be set to turbocharge your user engagement ⚑️

Integration at a Glance

Includes RevenueSupports Negative RevenueSends Sandbox EventsIncludes Subscriber AttributesSends Transfer EventsOptional Event Types
βœ…βœ…Toggle on in Settingsβœ…βŒnon_subscription_purchase_event
uncancellation_event
subscription_paused_event
expiration_event
billing_issue_event
product_change_event

Events

The Segment integration tracks the following events:

Event TypeDefault Event NameDescriptionApp StorePlay StoreAmazonStripePromo
Initial Purchaserc_initial_purchase_eventA new subscription has been purchased.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒ
Trial Startedrc_trial_started_eventThe start of an auto-renewing subscription product free trial.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒ
Trial Convertedrc_trial_converted_eventWhen an auto-renewing subscription product converts from a free trial to normal paid period.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒ
Trial Cancelledrc_trial_cancelled_eventWhen a user turns off renewals for an auto-renewing subscription product during a free trial period.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒ
Renewalrc_renewal_eventAn existing subscription has been renewed or a lapsed user has resubscribed.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒ
Cancellationrc_cancellation_eventA subscription or non-renewing purchase has been cancelled. See cancellation reasons for more details.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…
Uncancellationrc_uncancellation_eventA non-expired cancelled subscription has been re-enabled.βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒβŒ
Non Subscription Purchaserc_non_subscription_purchase_eventA customer has made a purchase that will not auto-renew.βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…
Subscription Pausedrc_subscription_paused_eventA subscription has been paused.βŒβœ…βŒβŒβŒ
Expirationrc_expiration_eventA subscription has expired and access should be removed.

If you have Platform Server Notifications configured, this event will occur as soon as we are notified (within seconds to minutes) of the expiration.

If you do not have notifications configured, delays may be approximately 1 hour.
βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…
Billing Issuerc_billing_issue_eventThere has been a problem trying to charge the subscriber. This does not mean the subscription has expired.

Can be safely ignored if listening to CANCELLATION event + cancel_reason=BILLING_ERROR.
βœ…βœ…βœ…βœ…βŒ
Product Changerc_product_change_eventA subscriber has changed the product of their subscription.

This does not mean the new subscription is in effect immediately. See Managing Subscriptions for more details on updates, downgrades, and crossgrades.
βœ…βœ…βŒβœ…βŒ

For events that have revenue, such as trial conversions and renewals, RevenueCat will automatically record this amount along with the event in Segment.

Setup

1. Set Segment User Identity

If you're using the Segment SDK, you can set the User ID to match the RevenueCat App User Id. This way, events sent from the Segment SDK and events sent from RevenueCat can be synced to the same user.

Use the .identify() method on the Segment SDK to set the same App User Id that is set in RevenueCat.

// Configure Purchases SDK
Purchases.configure(withAPIKey: "public_sdk_key", appUserID: "my_app_user_id")

// Set App User Id in Segment
SEGAnalytics.sharedAnalytics().identify("my_app_user_id")
// Configure Purchases SDK
[RCPurchases configureWithAPIKey:@"public_sdk_key" appUserID:@"my_app_user_id"];

// Set App User Id in Segment
[[SEGAnalytics sharedAnalytics] identify:@"my_app_user_id"];
// Configure Purchases SDK
Purchases.configure(this, "public_sdk_key", "my_app_user_id");

// Set App User Id in Segment
Analytics.with(context).identify("my_app_user_id", null, null);

2. Generate a Segment Write Key

In Segment, add a HTTP API as a source and copy the Write Key.

3. Send RevenueCat events to Segment

After you've set up the Purchases SDK and Segment SDK to have the same user identity, you can "turn on" the integration and configure the event names from the RevenueCat dashboard.

  1. Navigate to your project in the RevenueCat dashboard and find the Integrations card in the left menu. Select + New

  1. Choose Segment from the integrations menu.
  2. Choose your Segment region.
  3. Add your Segment Write Key from step 2.
  4. Enter the event names that RevenueCat will send or choose the default event names.
  5. Select whether you want sales reported as gross revenue (before app store commission), or after store commission and/or estimated taxes.
  6. Select whether you want RevenueCat to send sandbox events into Segment or not. You can check the environment key in the context property of the event to determine if it was triggered in a sandbox or production environment.
1097

Segment configuration screen

Sample Events

Below are sample JSONs that are delivered to Segment for each event type.

{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_initial_purchase_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 99.99,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "expires_at": 1594019532,
            "entitlement": "premium",
            "product_id": "annual",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2019-07-06T07:12:12"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1562397132
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_trial_started_event",
        "properties": {
            "price": 0.0,
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "expires_at": 1556693063,
            "entitlement": "premium",
            "product_id": "monthly",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2019-04-24T06:44:23"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1556088263
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_trial_converted_event",
        "properties": {
            "price": 7.99,
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "expires_at": 1558701211,
            "entitlement": "premium",
            "product_id": "monthly",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2019-04-24T12:33:31"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1556109211
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "userId": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_trial_cancelled_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 0.0,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "expires_at": 1568263870,
            "entitlement": "premium",
            "product_id": "monthly",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "cancellation_reason": "UNSUBSCRIBE"
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2019-09-05T08:48:57"
    },
    "identify": {
        "userId": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1567673337
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_renewal_event",
        "properties": {
            "price": 7.99,
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "expires_at": 1558699811,
            "entitlement": "premium",
            "product_id": "monthly",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2019-04-24T12:10:11"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1556107811
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_cancellation_event",
        "properties": {
            "price": 0.0,
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "expires_at": 1558116196,
            "entitlement": "premium",
            "product_id": "monthly",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2019-04-24T06:32:11"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1556087531
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_uncancellation_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 0.0,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "purchased_at": 1663820576,
            "expires_at": 1664425376,
            "entitlement": null,
            "entitlements": [
                "premium"
            ],
            "product_id": "annual_3d",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "subscriber_attributes": {
                "$idfa": "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000",
                "$idfv": "12345A6B-C789-0D1E-FG23-456H6I7J890K",
                "$email": "[email protected]",
                "$appsflyerId": "1234567890123-1234567890123456789",
                "updateId": "12345678-9012-3456-7890-123456789012", 
                "nativeAppVersion": "3.12.0",
                "nativeBuildVersion": "589"
            },
            "period_type": "TRIAL",
            "environment": "PRODUCTION",
            "presented_offering_id": "annual_trial",
            "transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "original_transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ],
            "app_id": "12345678-1234-1234-1234-123456789012"
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-09-23T23:13:28"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-09-23T23:13:28"
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_non_subscription_purchase_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 1.99,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "PLAY_STORE",
            "expires_at": null,
            "entitlement": null,
            "product_id": "100_credits",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2018-10-30T16:54:53"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": 1540918493
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_subscription_paused_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 0.0,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "PLAY_STORE",
            "purchased_at": 1662828058,
            "expires_at": 1665427258,
            "entitlement": null,
            "entitlements": null,
            "product_id": "annual_7day",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "subscriber_attributes": {
                "$email": "[email protected]"
            },
            "period_type": "NORMAL",
            "environment": "PRODUCTION",
            "presented_offering_id": null,
            "transaction_id": "GPA.1234-5678-9012-34567",
            "original_transaction_id": "GPA.1234-5678-9012-34567",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ],
            "auto_resumes_at": 1668098458,
            "app_id": "12345678-1234-1234-1234-123456789012"
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-09-23T22:21:51"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-09-23T22:21:51"
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_expiration_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 0.0,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "purchased_at": 1644953137,
            "expires_at": 1647368737,
            "entitlement": null,
            "entitlements": [
                "premium"
            ],
            "product_id": "monthly",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "subscriber_attributes": {
                "$idfa": "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000",
                "$idfv": "12345A6B-C789-0D1E-FG23-456H6I7J890K",
                "$email": "[email protected]",
                "$appsflyerId": "1234567890123-1234567890123456789",
                "$displayName": "First Last", 
            },
            "period_type": "NORMAL",
            "environment": "PRODUCTION",
            "presented_offering_id": "default_offering",
            "transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "original_transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ],
            "expiration_reason": "UNSUBSCRIBE"
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-03-15T18:25:37"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-03-15T18:25:37"
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_billing_issue_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 0.0,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "purchased_at": 1634712778,
            "expires_at": 1644047578,
            "entitlement": null,
            "entitlements": [
                "premium"
            ],
            "product_id": "monthly_3",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "subscriber_attributes": {
                "$idfa": "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000",
                "$idfv": "12345A6B-C789-0D1E-FG23-456H6I7J890K",
                "$email": "[email protected]",
                "$displayName": "First Last"
            },
            "period_type": "NORMAL",
            "environment": "PRODUCTION",
            "presented_offering_id": "plus",
            "transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "original_transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ],
            "grace_period_expires_at": 1644047578
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-01-20T07:53:01"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-01-20T07:53:01"
    }
}
{
    "track_event": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "event": "rc_product_change_event",
        "properties": {
            "revenue": 0.0,
            "currency": "USD",
            "store": "APP_STORE",
            "purchased_at": 1663531427,
            "expires_at": 1664136227,
            "entitlement": "pro",
            "entitlements": [
                "pro"
            ],
            "product_id": "annual",
            "app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "original_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "subscriber_attributes": {
                "$idfa": "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000",
                "$idfv": "12345A6B-C789-0D1E-FG23-456H6I7J890K",
                "$adjustId": "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890",
                "$fbAnonId": "1234567890-1234-5678-9012-345678901234"
            },
            "period_type": "TRIAL",
            "environment": "PRODUCTION",
            "presented_offering_id": null,
            "transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "original_transaction_id": "123456789012345",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ],
            "new_product_id": "annual_3",
            "app_id": "12345678-1234-1234-1234-123456789012"
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-09-23T23:05:36"
    },
    "identify": {
        "user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
        "traits": {
            "last_seen_app_user_id": "$RCAnonymousID:87c6049c58069238dce29853916d624c",
            "aliases": [
                "12abc345d67e890fgh12j3lm456n7890"
            ]
        },
        "context": {
            "environment": "production",
            "library": {
                "name": "RevenueCat Segment events",
                "version": "1.0"
            }
        },
        "timestamp": "2022-09-23T23:05:36"
    }
}

Subscription Status Attribute

Whenever RevenueCat sends an event to Segment, we'll update the rc_subscription_status user attribute with any applicable changes, using one of the following values:

StatusDescription
activeThe customer has an active, paid subscription which is set to renew at their next renewal date.
introThe customer has an active, paid subscription through a paid introductory offer.
cancelledThe customer has a paid subscription which is set to expire at their next renewal date.
grace_periodThe customer has a paid subscription which has entered a grace period after failing to renew successfully.
trialThe customer is in a trial period which is set to convert to paid at the end of their trial period.
cancelled_trialThe customer is in a trial period which is set to expire at the end of their trial period.
grace_period_trialThe customer was in a trial period and has now entered a grace period after failing to renew successfully.
expiredThe customer's subscription has expired.
promotionalThe customer has access to an entitlement through a granted RevenueCat promotional subscription.
expired_promotionalThe customer previously had access to an entitlement through a granted RevenueCat promotional subscription that has since expired.
pausedThe customer has a paid subscription which has been paused and is set to resume at some future date.

For customers with multiple active subscriptions, this attribute will represent the status of only the subscription for which the most recent event occurred.

Please note that since this attribute is set and updated when events are delivered, subscribers with events prior to our release of this attribute (during November 2023) will not have this attribute set until/unless a future event (renewal, cancellation, etc) occurs.